1001页:B005 消防员的战术

发布时间:2019-06-04点击量:129

图片内容:

我只能说,消防员对烟雾探测器非常认真。

我只能说,消防员真是烟感拥趸.....

双语版本:

The most basic principle of firefighting is that human life takes precedence over all other concerns.

灭火战术最基本的原则就是救人第一。

This rule may sound obvious, yet at times it is overlooked—not intentionally, of course!

这是个显而易见的战术原则,但有时却会被忽略,当然不是故意的。

Still, on occasion, certain actions taken during the course of extinguishment can endanger occupants.

有时,灭火行动中采取的某些措施可能会危及建筑物中的其他居民。

Other times, actions that are overlooked can have the same effect.

或者是忘记采取某些措施,同样会危及生命。

Many of these variables will be discussed in the chapters on engine and ladder company operations.

这些问题我们将在水罐车和云梯车的章节中详细探讨。

Still more will be covered in the chapters dealing with fires in specific occupancies.

更多的细节则在特定类型建筑火灾的相关章节中探讨。

For the present, a discussion of various principles that support the emphasis placed on human life will point out some of the generalities that apply under almost all circumstances.

本章主要内容就是探讨人命关天原则,并概述在大多数场合下均适用的战术。

Concept 01

概念01

When sufficient personnel are not available to effect both rescue and extinguishment at the same time, rescue must be given priority.

人手不足时,优先救人。

Assume that a single engine company is first to arrive at a working fire on the first floor of a two-story private house.

假设一栋两层民居的首层发生火灾,第一到场为一辆水罐消防车。

The unit is staffed (understaffed) by a driver, an officer, and one firefighter.

车上人员(不足)仅为司机、指挥和一名消防员。

On arrival, an adult female is visible at the second-floor front window. She is shrouded in smoke, screaming hysterically to the firefighters to save her baby.

消防员刚到场就发现二楼前窗处有一名成年女性。她已经被烟气包围,正在歇斯底里地呼叫消防员救救她的孩子。

Before the members have even gotten off the apparatus, she and the child slump back into the room, apparently overcome by the heavy smoke that is pouring out of the window over their heads.

还未等消防员下车,窗内喷涌而出的滚滚浓烟就使这名女子失去意识瘫倒。

What actions should this unit take while fighting this fire?

下一步该怎么办?

The answer will depend on the resources that can be brought to bear immediately.

有多种可能,取决于手头可用资源。

Several options are possible, but with the limited personnel described above—only three firefighters—simultaneous fire suppression and rescue is not an option that will work.

可选项很多,但因为人手如前所述—三名消防员—非常有限,灭火和救人同步展开是不现实的。

In this situation, all three members will be required to perform the rescues.

在这种情况下,三名消防员都要参与救人。

A portable ladder on the pumper provides the fastest, safest, and most direct access to the victims.

放在水泵上的便携梯是接近被困者最快、最安全也是最直接的途径。

In addition, unless fire is blowing out directly below the window, this is the only access that doesn’t require hoseline support.

此外,除非窗户下面有火苗喷涌,这是唯一不需要水枪掩护的途径。

Removing an adult victim via portable ladder is a very difficult task, requiring at least one person on the ladder and one in the room with the victim.

通过便携梯解救被困人员是一项非常困难的任务,梯子上和房间里各需要一名消防员。

In addition, you must remove the child.

此外,还有儿童需要救援。

These three firefighters will have their hands full, but it can be done.

这点事儿够这三人忙活的,但他们可以完成任务。

If the victims survive, the firefighters will have been successful even if the house burns to the ground.

即便大火最终将整栋房子烧毁,只要被困人员存活,这就是一起成功的救援。

In fact, rescue is the only practical alternative. You must at all times learn to put human life above property losses.

事实上,救人是唯一可行的方案,你必须时刻谨记“救人第一”。

Attempting to approach the victims by way of the interior means passing the fire, which means stretching hose lines. If conditions are serious, it may not even be possible to get past the fire and up the stairs at all.

试图从建筑物内部接近被困人员意味着穿越火线,即需要延伸水带。如果情况比较糟糕,可能连楼都上不去。

Under the best conditions, even after the fire is knocked down enough for firefighters to ascend the interior staircase, one member will have to remain on the hoseline to protect the escape route while the others each attempt to remove a victim.

即便是最理想状态,消防员成功打通了一条通道上到二楼,尝试救援被困人员时只能投入两人,必须留一名消防员把持水枪以保护撤退路线。

This is a much slower and more dangerous approach.

这样的分工意味着更慢、更危险。

Due to the limited personnel, the interior approach faces a much greater chance of failure.

由于人手不足,从内部进攻的失败几率将会非常大。

Similarly, trying a ladder rescue and simultaneously attacking the fire almost ensures that, with the three-member crew, neither operation will be successful, since there aren’t enough firefighters to perform all of the needed tasks.

受限于仅有三名消防员无法完成所有项目,即便是使用便携梯从外部救人和灭火同步进行也不会成功。

But it is still an attempt at rescue. The last possible option would be to commit all of the members to a rapid knockdown of the fire, forcing the victims to await rescue by later-arriving personnel.

但这至少在尝试救人了。最差的选择就是将所有人力投入灭火行动,寄希望于速战速决,迫使被困人员等待后续到场人员的营救行动。

This solution is unsatisfactory unless additional personnel are immediately available, since the victims will almost certainly perish before anyone can reach them.

除非后续人员能马上到场,否则被困人员将会很快死亡。

After 4 minutes without oxygen, the victims are likely to suffer brain damage. Any longer than that, death is nearly certain.

缺氧4分钟即可造成脑损伤,超过这个时间节点基本等于死亡。

It is important to carefully consider the scenario described above: This is a one-family house, with only two known victims at a specific location, and there are sufficient personnel (three) to perform this very limited task. That is what makes this scenario work.

注意上述场景中的几个细节:独栋民居,已知被困人员数量和位置,任务所需人力有限。这是方案成功的关键

If the building was larger, and contained more victims, say 8 or 10, or if the victims’ locations were not immediately known (which would require an extensive search), the most important priority would be to try to get the hoseline operating between the fire and the victims.

如果建筑物再大点,有8到10名被困人员,或是位置未知(即需要大范围搜索),首要的任务就是拦住火势向被困人员方向发展。

历史文章:

1001页:B001消防员的战术 

1001页:A003 消防建筑施工 

1001页:B003 消防员的战术 

1001页:A004 消防建筑施工

1001页:B004消防员的战术

1001页:A005 消防建筑施工

来源:52号消防站
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